Use Vim (Note for vimbook-OPL.pdf)

Learn use vim as my main text editor
總體上感覺:
看到10章之後,速度慢慢就上去了,可能是自己慢慢熟悉命令了。
這個Note僅僅是我在練習時順便整理的。

The Tutorial

Get start

    I just think vim is a very good productivity tools.

    Did you think so?

    尝试使用中文,感觉这个输入法的速度都变快了,有没有?

    字体比较小,怎样把字体变大呢?(cmd=)

    背景也能不能设置为黑色的呢?(GUI 下 theme=evening)

    都需要自己探索,学习。

1.Vim:Commands

Moving Around

    hjkl Move cursor ### Deleting Characters
    x: Delete charcter under score your cursor ### Changing modals
    esc: Change modal
    i	inserts a character before the character under the cursor
    v: Visual modal (Select multi lines text) ### Undo and Redo
    u: Undo

    U: Undo line

    Ctrl r twice: Undoes the undo

Getting Out

    ZZ: Writes files and exits 保存并关闭文件

    :q!	quit-and-throw-things-away 退出不保存

    :w	写入文件不退出

    :q	退出

Other Editing Commands

    a	insert text after the cursor
    dd	delete a line
    o	a new line below the cursor,then enter insert mode.
    O	a new line above the cursor,then enter insert mode.
    :help	display help

    some text enclosed in vertical bars (etc: |tutor),then press
    ctrl ]	Jump to tag(Jump to the location of the tag given by the word under the cursor)
    ctrl t	pop tag(Back to the location of the tag)

    get help in NORMAL mode on subject

    etc.
    :help x
    :help deleting
    :help ctrl-a
    :help ctrl-h


    get help in INSERT mode on subject
    prefix key i_

    :help i_ctrl-h

    special key such as Arrow key
    :help <Up>	get help on <Up> arrow key
    other help prefix key , see note

    **Using a Count to Edit Faster**
    If you want to type aaaaaaaaa
    you can
	    9ia<Esc> 	then it will insert aaaaaaaaa
    or
	    9aa<Esc>	append aaaaaaaaa to after the cursor 

    If you want move up 10 lines
    you can
	    10k
    to move down 10 lines
	    10j
    to move cursor left 5 characters
	    5h
    to move cursor right 5 characters
	    5l

2.Editing a Little Faster

Word Movement

    w	forward 1 word
    b	backward 1 word
    3w	forward 3 words
    4b	backward 4 words

Moving to the Start or End of a line

    $	move to the end of line
    ^	move to the begin of line
    2$	move to the end of 2 line
    0	move to the begin of line

Searching Along a Single Line

    fx	forward search single character x
    Fx	backward search single character x
    2fx	twice search single character x
    tx	cursor stop in searched character x begin
    Tx	cursor stop in searched character x after

Moving to a Specific Line

    gg	Go to file start
    G	Go to file end	

Telling Where Are in a File

    :set number	display line number
    :set nonumber	display line number off

Where am I?

    ctrl+g	display a status line that indicates where you are in the file.	

Scrolling Up and Down

    ctrl+u	scroll up half a screen
    ctrl+d	scroll down half a screen

Deleting Text

    dw	delete a word
    dd	delete one line
    d2w	delete two word
    d3d	delete three line
    d$	delete from cursor to end of line
    d0 or d^	delete from cursor to begin of line
    3d2w	delete 2 words repeat 3 times for a  total of 6 words

Chaging Text

    cw	change a word
    c3w	change 3 words
    cc	change a line

Joining Lines

    J	join the current line with the next one
    3J	join 3 lines to one line

Replacing Characters

    rx	replaces the character under the cursor with x
    5ra	replaces the character under the cursor with aaaaa

Changin Case

    ~	change the character under the cursor with lowercase or uppercase

Keyboard Macros

    q character command records keystrokes into the register named character. (The char-
    acter must be between a and z.)
    ---
    qa	Start recording a macro in register a.
    ^	Move to the beginning of the line.
    i#define<Esc>	Insert the string #define at the beginning of the line.
    j	go to next line
    q	Stop recording the macro.
    ---
    @a	use macro
    10@a	use macro 10 times

3.Searching

Simple Searches

    /string		search string	if you want to search forward use /<Enter>
    /<Up>or<Down>	use history search string

Searching Options

Highlighting

    :set hlsearch	set highlighting search
    :set nohlsearch 	no highlighting search
    :nohlsearch	clear the current highlighting

Incremental Searches

    :set incsearch
    :set noincsearch
    n	next matched string ### Searching Backward
    ?string		search string backward
    n	last matched string

Changing Direction

    n	normal next matched string
    N reverse search between ? and /

Basic Regular Expressions

The Beginning(^) and End ($) of a line

    /str$	search line end with str 
    /^str	search line begin with str 

Match Any Single Character(.)

    etc.
    /a.p	apple	adplus result will show like left words

Regular Expression Summary

    x	The literal character x
    ^	Start of line
    $	End of line
    .	A single character
    character	Turns off the special meaning of many characters, gives special meaning to a few others

4. Text Blocks and Multiple Files

Cut,Paste and Copy

    Use p (put) command
    dd -> p  You can delete a line ,then put into your cursor in what line you want
    d$ -> p	 You can delete from cursor to end of line , then put into where you want to put under your cursor
    d2w -> p delete 2 words then put to another place

Character Twiddling

    etc.
    if you want to type 'the' then you type 'teh' you can put your cursor on 'e' then
    xp	x->delete the character p-> paste character after the cursor

More on “Putting”

    p	places the text after the cursor
    P	places the text before the cursor
    3p	paste 3 times

Marks

    :marks Display all marks
    ma	make a mark named a
    mb	make a mark named b
    `a	jump to mark a
    `b	jump to mark b
    d'a	from cursor delete mark a content

Yanking

    yank (Most other editors call copy operation)
    yy yank a line then use p to paste
    3y	yank 3 lines

Which File Am I On?

    :args

Edit multi files

    you can use vim to open a.txt b.txt
    vim a.txt b.txt
    then
    :next	Next file
    :previous	Previous file
    :wnext	Write then go to next file
    :wprevious	Write then go to previous file
    :rewind		Edit first file
    :last	Edit last file
    ctrl+^(6)	switch to alternate file (You can use :next to jump other file then two files are alternate)

5.Windows

Opening a New Window

    :split	split to up/down two window
    ctrl+w w	move cursor to alternate window
    ctrl+w j	move cursor to down window
    ctrl+w k	move cursor to up window

Opening Another Window with Another File

    :split file	etc. :split YQRealLink.m
    :split +/str file	search str and open file	etc. :split +/define YQRealLink.m	search define in YQRealLink.m
    :20 split file	Open file set window size 20 rows

Split Summary

    :count split +command file
    count	The size of window
    +command	An initial command
    file	The name of file to edit(You can use autocompleted to fix filename)

The :new Command

    open a new window without content of file(This is a new file)

Changing Window Size

    ctrl-w+		etc. ctrl+w 10 + increase 10 rows to current window
    ctrl-w-		etc. ctrl+w 20 - decrease 20 rows to current window
    .	Repeat last command	
    ctrl-w=		etc. ctrl+w =	make all window size equal
    (count)ctrl-w_		makes current window (count) lines high

Buffers

    :buffers	show current buffer list
    stats explain
    - Inactive
    h Hidden
    % Current
    # Alternate buffer
    + File has been modified

Selecting a Buffer

    :buffer number	etc. :buffer 2	Select second buffer file
    or
    :buffer file	etc. :buffer file2.txt
    :sbuffer number(or file)	splits the window and starts editing the buffer
    Annotations: P51	Other buffer-related commands

6.Basic Visual Mode

Entering Visual Mode(v)

    :help v_d	describes what the d command does in visual mode
    v	visual block
    V	visual line
    You can use <Esc> to leave all mode ### Editing with Visual Mode
    d	delete highlighted text
    D	delete highlighted line
    y	places the highlighted text into a register
    Y	places the highlighted line into a register
    c	change text
    C	change line
    J	join all the highlighted lines into one long line
    If you want to join the lines without adding spaces,use the
    gJ command

Indent

    <	shiftwidth(shift tab)
    >	width(tab)
    =	indents the text
    ctrl ]	jump to definition of the function highlighted
    K	man highlighted text ### Visual Block Mode
    :help v_b_r	get help on the visual block r command
    ctrl-v	Enter visual block mode
    then
    I	insert after blocked text
    and you can use hjkl to select block
    c	delete string then insert on each line in the block
    C	delete the character from cursor to end of line then insert new text to block
    $	extend block to the end of line
    A	add text to the end of each line #### Replacing
    r	applies all the selected characters with a single character #### Shifting
    >	right tab
    <	left tab	
    one
    two
    three

7. Commands for Programmers

Syntax Coloring

    :syntax on #### Syntax Coloring Problems
    :set background?	get current background setting
    :set background=light	set background to light
    :set background=dark	set background to dark
    :set filetype=c(Or java )	tell Vim types of syntax highlighting to use
    :set shiftwidth=4	change the size of the shift width ### Automatic Indentation
    set: cindent
    set: smartindent
    set: autoindent

    to set all open c,cpp file use cindent to .vimrc file
    :filetype on
    :autocmd FileType c,cpp :set cindent


    = using Vim's internal formatting program

Locating Items in a Program

    [ctrl-i,]ctrl-i		

8. Basic Abbreviations,Keyboard Mapping,and Initialization Files

Abbreviations

    :abbreviate ad advertisement	when you type ad<space> or <tab> then will appear advertisement

    see all abbreviate use
    :abbreviate

    see you vimrc file
    :version

    write all your settings to a file
    :mkvimrc file

    My .vimrc is locate on ~/.vimrc

9.Basic Command-Mode Commands

    :	Enter command line mode 
    :p(rint)	Just print current line text
    :1,5 print	Print 1-5 lines content
    :5 print	Print fifth line text
    :1,$ print	Print all content
    ma	mark selected content to a
    :'a print	print a mark content
    :shell	Enter shell mode (As Terminal) type exit to back to vim

10.Basic GUI Usage

11.Dealling with Text Files

Automatic Text Wrapping

Text Formatting Command

    :range center width 	etc.	:1,5 center 30	to center a range of lines(width default is 80)
    :range right width
    :range left margin

The formatoptions Option

    :set formatoptions=cq
    c	Automatically wrap comment. Insert the comment leader automatically.
    q	Allow gq to format comments. #### File Formats
    :set fileformats=unix,dos	set file fromat to unix,dos
    :set fileformat?	see current file format
    :set fileformat=unix	set file format to unix #### Changing How the Last Line Ends
    :set endofline	Last line ends in <EOL>
    :set noendofline	Last line does not have an <EOL> #### Troff-Related Movement
    )	moves forward one sentence
    (	backward sentence	
    }	moves forward one paragraph (most as one blank line as division)
    {	backward paragraph ### Section Moving
    [[	move a section backward
    ]]	move a section forward

12.Automatic Completion

    ctrl-p	backward search word to complete
    Many options you can customize in advanced chapter
    ctrl-n	forward search word to complete ### Customization of Completion
    :set ignorecase		tells the editor to tray all words regardless of case ### Specifying a Dictionary
    :set dictionary=file,file,...
    etc.
    single dictionary
    :set dictionary=/Users/yaqinking/Documents/dict/anime_dic.txt
    multi dictionary
    :set dictionary=/usr/dict/words,/usr/doc/words
    !You can specify your input method dict to you vim dict to auto complete your type exp.

Line mode

    ctrl-x ctrl-l	line completion ### Adjusting the screen
    ctrl-x ctrl-y	scroll up one line
    ctrl-x ctrl-e	scroll down one line

14.File Recovery and Command-Line Arguments

    :set backup	open backup
    :set backupext=string	add extension type to backup file
    etc.
    :set backupext=.bak
    It will be backup to file.txt.bak

    :set nobackup	close backup
    :set backupdir=~/tmp/

    $vim -r file
    recovery file from swap file
    :swapname	show what swap file your current use
    If you don't want to use swap file (Default swap file is on :set swapfile)
    :set noswapfile

Controlling When the Swap File Is Writen

    :set updatetime=23000	23seconds(milliseconds)
    :set updatecount=400	the number of character 400 you typed it will be writen to swap file

15.Miscellaneous Commands

    ga(or :ascii)	prints the number of the chracter under the cursor.
    5gg(or 5G)	go to 5 line
    30gg(or 30G)	go to 30 line
    ctrl-l		Screen Redraw
    z10	resize current window to 10 lines
    :intro		View introductory flash screen

16.Cookbook

Chracter Twiddling

    teh->the	xp ### Replacing One Word with Another Using One Command
    If you want to replace Oreimou to Oreimou Radio,
    If Oreimou line are 100-110,

    :100,110s/Oreimou/Oreimou Radio/g

    :100,110	100 line to 110 line
    s	:substitute
    Oreimou		old word
    Oreimou Radio	new word
    g	global change

    If you want to change all use	1,$
    1	first line
    $	last line

Interactively Replacing One Word With Another

    1.	/Radio<Enter>	Search
    2.	cw<Esc>	change word
    3.	n	next word Radio
    4.	cw<Esc>	change word
    5.	repeat 3-4

Moving Text

    If you want to moving some line
    1.	V	select line
    2.	ma	mark as a
    3.	move cursor to where you want put line
    4.	d'a	delete marked a content(Put it to pasteboard)
    5.	p	paste to cursor current line

Moving paragraph

    1.	V	select start line
    2.	ma	mark as a
    3.	}	move to paragraph end
    4.	mb	mark as b
    5.	move cursor to where you want put line
    6.	:'a,'b move .		move

Copying a Block of Text from One File to Another

    0.	:split file	split window
    1.	V	select line (etc. select 2 lines) then
    2.	2y	yank 2lines text
    3.	ctrl-w-w(or ctrl-w-p)	switch to another window
    4.	p	paste

    or

    1.	ma	mark as a
    2.	y'a	yank 'a
    3.	ctrl-w-w	switch to another window
    4.	p	paste ### Drawing Comment Boxes
    put into .vimrc
    :ab #b /****************************************
    :ab #e <Space>****************************************/
    When you want to type #b just type #bb then delete second b it will not expanded.

    Another better option use external program like boxes(see http://www.vim.org)

Oops, I Left the File Write-Protected

    :w filename	save to another file

17.Topics Not Covered

File Encoding

    :set fe=encoding	set file encoding
    :set fe=twiwan(or prc)	traditional Chinese (or Simplified Chinese)
    :set fileencoding=encoding	long format
    :set fe=japan		Japanese Ecoding

The Details

18.Complete Basic Editing

    e	move to end of a word
    ge	backward move to end of a word
    3ge	3 backward move to endo af a word

    ^	move to first non-black character on the line
    0	move to beginning of the line

Repeating Single-Chracter Searches

    fx	searches fo the first x (to repeat search use ;	 to reverse use , )

Moving Lines up and down

    -	moves up to the first non-blank character line
    =	moves down ### Jumping Around
    <count>-	move <count> up line
    <count>G	go to <count> line

    ctrl-o	Jump to previous location
    <TAB>	Jump to next location ### Where Am I,in Detail
    ctrl-g	Display summary information at the bottom of the screen	
    1ctrl-g	add path to show
    2ctrl-g	add buffer to show
    gctrl-g	another tpe of status information

Scrolling Up

    ctrl-u	scrolls up half a screen
    :set scroll=10	set ctrl-u commands scrolls up number
    2ctrl-u	scrolls up 2 line
    5ctrl-y	scrolls up 5 line
    ctrl-b	scrolls up an entire screen

Scrolling Down

    ctrl-d	move down The amount is controlled by the 'scroll' option

    ctrl-e	move down one line

    ctrl-f	move down one screen of data (also <PageDown> or <S-Down> Shift-ArrowDown)

Define How Much to Scroll

    :set scrolljump=5 ### Delete to the End of the Line
    <count>D	delete line (or <count> amount lines)
    C	change line text current cursor to end of line then enter INSERT mode

    Mmmm, basic command has d and d two forms, and you can add <count> to dozens do.
    Usally,d -> delete current word or character D -> delete cursor to end of line
    3d -> delete 3 lines

    a	append at begin line
    A	append at end of line
    gi	insert at begin line (same as a)

Arithmetic

    ctrl-a	increase number
    ctrl-x	decrease number

Jpining Lines with Spaces

    J	join the current line with the next one
    gJ	join line without spaces
    3gJ	join 3 line without spaces

Replace Mode

    r	replace a chracter
    R	enter replace mode

Chaning Case

    <count>~	change a chracter case
    <count>g~	change current line and next line text case
    <count>g~~	change line case

    <count>gUU	change entire line case

19.Advanced Searching Using Regular Expressions

Searching Options

Case Sensitivity

    :set ignorecase		turn on ignorecase
    :set noignorecase	turn off	
    :set smartcase		WORD will be matches WORD

Instant Word Searches

    *	search under cursor word
    g*	go to searched words under cursor word
    g#	reverse

Search Offsets

    /nisekoi/2	go to searched nisekoi next 2 line position
    /nisekoi/b2(or s2 start)	moves the cursor to the beginning of the match
    /nisekoi/e	moves the cursor onto the last character of the match

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